Chairman, Board of Directors
Managing Director/Chief Executive Officer
Independent Non-Executive Director
Divisional Head, Sales and Business Development
Divisional Head, Business Services & Client Experience
Divisional Head, Business Technology & Digital Innovation
Chief Strategy Officer
Chief Financial Officer
Head, Treasury & Investment
Group Head, Employee Experience Services
Head, Corporate Strategy & Execution
Company Secretary & General Counsel
Head, Application Development
Head, Start Up Operations
Head, Depository Services
Acting Group Head, Enterprise Resilience
Head, Internal Audit
Head, Admin Services
Head, Financial Reporting
Head, Infrastructure Services
Head, Ancilliary & New Markets Business
Head, Contact Centre
Acting Head, Performance Management & Investor Relations
Acting Head, Project Delivery & DevOps
Mr. Oscar N. Onyema is the Chairman of Central Securities Clearing System (CSCS) PLC, the clearing house for the Nigerian capital market. He assumed the role in April 2011 after his resumption as Chief Executive Officer of The Nigerian Stock Exchange and member of the National Council. He also serves as Chairman of the Boards of all subsidiaries of The Exchange and is the pioneer chairman of NG Clearing Limited. He has served as a Council member of Chartered Institute of Stockbrokers (CIS); Board member of FMDQ OTC PLC; and Board member of the National Pension Commission of Nigeria (PENCOM).
At a regional level, Mr. Onyema was the immediate past President of African Securities Exchanges Association (ASEA) and a former chairman of West African Capital Market Integration Council (WACMIC), where he supports efforts to integrate securities markets in the West African sub-region.
On the International front, he sits on the London Stock Exchange Group Africa Advisory Group (LAAG) as well as the Thomson Reuters Africa Advisory Network. He has served as a member of World Economic Forum (WEF) Global Agenda Council on the Future of Financing and Capital.
Mr. Onyema’s remarkable achievements have earned him numerous awards and recognitions including the Special Recognition Award for transformational leadership in the Nigerian Capital Markets at Business Day Top 25 CEOs Award 2018; the Top 10 Most Powerful Men in Africa recognition by Forbes Magazine in 2015; the Most Innovative CEO of the Year 2014 accolade by the Abuja Chamber of Commerce. Also, in 2014 Mr. Onyema received the national honour of Officer of the Order of the Niger (“OON”) from the Federal Government of Nigeria in recognition of his contribution to economic development, the transformation of the Nigerian Stock Exchange and the Nigerian capital markets.
Prior to relocating to Nigeria, he served as Senior Vice President and Chief Administrative Officer at American Stock Exchange (AMEX), which he joined in 2001. He was the first person of colour to hold that position. After the merger of NYSE Euronext and AMEX in 2008, he ran the NYSE AMEX equity business, which he helped to position as a premier market for small and mid-cap securities. He started his Wall Street career at the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX) in 1997.
Mr. Onyema is an alumnus of Harvard Business School (Advanced Management Program), The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania (Board of Directors Development Program) and INSEAD International Directors Programme. He has an MBA from Baruch College, New York and a BSc from Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife. He is a Fellow of the Institute of Directors (“IoD”) Nigeria, Fellow of the Chartered Institute of Stockbrokers (CIS), Associate of the Chartered Institute for Securities & Investment (CISI) in the UK, and holds FINRA Series 7, 24, 63 qualifications in the United States.
Mr. Haruna Jalo-Waziri is the Managing Director and Chief Executive Officer of Central Securities Clearing System Plc (CSCS), a position he assumed in November 2017. He has overall responsibility for delivering on the company’s vision and mission. Since taking over at the helm, he has driven a number of strategic initiatives, leading to notable efficiency gains and repositioning the company for sustainable growth.
Mr. Jalo-Waziri has three decades hands-on experience across multiple financial disciplines, with a career spanning Investment Banking, Securities Trading, Pension Funds Administration and conventional Asset Management, Business development and Regulation. He is an award- winning Executive, with reputable track record in leading successful start-ups and business transformations.
Prior to being appointed Chief Executive Officer of CSCS Plc, he was Executive Director, Capital Markets at the Nigerian Stock Exchange, with primary responsibility for deepening the market through products, market structure innovation and new listings, as well as generating order flow across all asset classes. Under his stewardship, the partnership between the NSE and the London Stock Exchange was established, an alliance which has birthed a number of dual listings on these Bourses. He led the launch of the Premium Board on the NSE, distinguishing value companies with strong governance practices and creating enhanced liquidity flow for the counters. He also led the introduction of the Nigerian Sovereign Green Bond as well as the Federal Government Retail Savings Bonds. Mr. Jalo-Waziri previously served as Managing Director/Chief Executive at both UBA Stockbrokers Limited and UBA Asset Management Limited, transforming the businesses to becoming top-5 in their respective segments. He also pioneered the asset management business of Kakawa Discount House Limited (now FBN Merchant Bank) and previously worked at the Securities and Exchange Commission.
Mr. Jalo-Waziri is a Director on the Board of NG Clearing Limited and the Board of Special Olympics Nigeria. He is on the Advisory Board of Business Day and currently serves as Vice President of the AIFA Reading Society, an NGO, which focuses on promotion of a reading culture and sustainable development of the educational system in Africa. He has served on the Boards of several companies, including FSDH Merchant Bank Limited, Nigeria-German Chemicals Plc, Protea Oakwood Hotel Limited, Coral Properties Limited, UBA Stockbrokers Limited and UBA Asset Management Limited to mention a few. He is a life member of the Institute of Directors.
Mr. Jalo-Waziri is an economist, and an alumnus of reputable institutions, including the Lagos Business School and Venture Capital Institute of America. He holds a first degree and MBA from the University of Maiduguri and the Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University respectively.
Mr. Uche Ike holds a first degree in Accountancy and a Master of Business Administration. He is also an Associate Member of The Institute of Chartered Accountants of Nigeria. He has over 27 years banking experience covering Banking Operations, Audit, Compliance and Risk Management. He is presently the Executive Director Risk Management, Compli- ance and Corporate Governance for United Bank for Africa Plc.
Mr. Idiahi is a Co-founder and Partner of Verod Capital Management Limited. Prior to founding Verod Capital, Mr. Idiahi was the managing partner of Fountainhead Media Group. Mr. Idiahi also previously worked at Financial Derivatives Company Limited.
He is a Director of African Lifestyle Limited, EMZOR Pharma- ceutics Industries Limited, Greensprings Educational Services Limited, and on the Board of Regents of Harris Manchester College, Oxford University.
He received a B.Sc in Economics from the University of Houston, Texas and an MBA from Saïd Business School, University of Oxford, Oxford, England.
Roosevelt Ogbonna is the Group Deputy Managing Director of Access Bank PLC. He has over 20 years of experience in banking cutting across treasury, commercial, corporate and investment banking. Prior to his appointment, he was the Executive Director, Wholesale Banking Division of Access Bank PLC.
He is a Fellow of the Institute of Chartered Accountants of Nigeria, a Senior Executive Fellow of Harvard Kennedy School, an alumnus of Harvard Business School and a CFA charter holder. He holds a Master’s degree in Business Administration from IMD Business School, an Executive Master’s degree in Business Administration from Cheung Kong Graduate School of Business and a Bachelor’s degree in Banking and Finance from University of Nigeria, Nsukka. In 2015, he was selected as one of the Institute of Interna- tional Finance (IIF) Future Global Leaders.
Roosevelt sits on the board of a number of institutions including, Africa Finance Corporation, Access Bank UK Limited, Access Bank (Zambia) Ltd and Central Securities Clearing System PLC.
Tinuade Awe is the Executive Director, Regulation at The Nigerian Stock Exchange (The Exchange). Prior to her current position, she was the General Counsel and Head of the Legal and Regulation Division of The Exchange. She served as Secretary to the National Council of The Exchange from January 2011 to October 2015. As Executive Director, Regulation, she has responsibility for the regulation of the two primary stakeholder groups of The Exchange, i.e., the Dealing Members that trade on The Exchange and issuers that have securities listed on The Exchange. Her team is responsible inter alia, for rule making and interpretation, monitoring, inspections, market surveillance, investigations, regulatory technology, and enforcement.
She also serves as a Trustee of the Investors’ Protection Fund of The Exchange and is a member of the Board of the Financial Reporting Council of Nigeria (FRC). She Chairs the Corporate Governance Committee of the FRC Board. Additionally, she is a Non-Executive Director of the Central Securities Clearing System Plc.
She previously worked with Banwo & Ighodalo, a law firm in Lagos; the United Nations International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia in The Hague; the United Nations Compensation Commission in Geneva; and the New York office of Simpson Thacher & Bartlett, a law firm with global presence. She has a wealth of experience spanning over twenty-five (25) years.
She has an LL.B Degree from the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife, graduating as the Best Female Student in the Faculty of Law. She finished at the Nigerian Law School with First Class Honours, graduating as Best Overall Student. She also holds LL.M Degrees from Harvard Law School, where she was a Landon H. Gammon Fellow, as well as The London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE), where she graduated with Merit. At the LSE, she was a British Council Scholar. She is admitted to both the Nigerian and New York Bars.
She is the recipient of a number of awards and honours, including The African Legal Awards 2018, General Counsel of the Year; Law Digest Africa Awards, General Counsel of the Year 2018, and Esq. Nigeria Legal Awards, General Counsel of the Year 2017.
Ms. Awe’s interests include education, travelling, African art, and gender and development.
Chief Ezeagu graduated from Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, UK; University of Lagos, Nigeria and University of Nigeria, Nsukka where he obtained M.Sc. Governance & Finance, MBA Finance and B.Sc. Management degrees respectively. He is a Fellow of Chartered Institute of Stockbrokers and a Fellow of Institute of Direct Marketing of Nigeria. His career spans Consultancy, Banking, Finance and Capital Market.
Chief Ezeagu is a member of the Technical Committee of the West African Capital Markets Integration Council (WACMIC). He was a Member of Finance Committee, Chartered Institute of Stockbrokers and served as a member, Investment Management Sub-Committee of the Capital Market Committee of the Securities & Exchange Commission (SEC). He also served and still serving in various Committees of both SEC and the Nigerian Stock Exchange to promote the ideals of the Nigerian Capital Market. Chief Ezeagu has been registered with SEC and has been actively operating in the Capital Market since 1994.
He is currently the Chairman of Association of Securities Dealing Houses of Nigeria (ASHON), the Managing Director/CEO of Solid-Rock Securities & Investment Plc and on the Board of the Lagos Commodities and Futures Exchange Ltd among others.
Chief Ezeagu is widely travelled and has attended many executive management training programs both locally and internationally. He is a member of the prestigious Lagos County Club 1949 (served on the Club’s Investment Committee) and PENA Club of Nigeria (its former President).
Oluwaseyi Abe is currently the Managing Director / CEO of Magnartis Finance & Investments Limited — one of the most structured players in the Nigerian Capital Market with regional market operations that cut across emerging African markets. Prior to this engagement, Mr. Abe (on secondment from Magnartis Finance & Investments Limited) was the Chief Investment Officer of Aiico Pension Managers Limited.
One of the thoroughbred investment banking careerists in his generation; Mr. Abe started his career with Leadbank Group in January 1990. In August of the same year, he was seconded to Nigerian Stockbrokers Limited – a subsidiary of NAL Bank Plc for one-year training in stockbroking and investment management.
He returned to Leadbank Group in January 1992 after a successful training program and qualification as a profes- sional Stockbroker. On his return to Leadbank Group, he commenced trading on the floor of the Nigerian Stock Exchange for the bank and acted in many capacities as investment manager and-advisor. He was involved in capital raising exercise for many companies amongst which are FBN Plc, UBA Plc, IBL Plc, UBN Plc. and Wema Bank Plc. etc. He participated in packaging several Initial Public Offers, (IPO), Rights Offers etc. Mr. Abe was also involved in both local and foreign treasury dealing activities. For several years, he played leading roles in the marketing of the bank’s treasury / capital market products. He at different times headed various functional units of the bank such as Investment Banking, Private Banking; Issuing House; Corporate Finance; Transaction Banking, Treasury Marketing and Product Development. He also had a stint in the commercial & consumer banking group.
Further, Mr. Abe was very instrumental to the development of the bank’s asset management business and deployment of same across the bank’s branches nationwide. He rose to the position of Chief Operating Officer for Lead Securities and Investments Limited-a stockbrokerage and asset manage- ment company and member of the Nigerian Stock Exchange. Mr. Abe Left Lead Capital in September 2006 for Magnartis Finance & investments Limited (Member of the Nigerian Stock Exchange).
Mr. Abe is an accomplished Investment Banker, a serial investor and very active operator in the financial market landscape. He rose to the peak of the stockbroking profes- sion and is currently the immediate past President / CIC of the Chartered Institute of Stockbrokers of Nigeria.
He attended the University of Ife, Ile-Ife where he bagged a Second Class (Upper) Honors Degree in Social Sciences and finished as the Institutions best graduating student in Sociology and Anthropology for the year 1988. He obtained a M.Sc. Degree in Marketing from the University of Lagos, Akoka in 1996 and an MBA from Ondo State University, Ado-Ekiti in 1998. He also attended the prestigious Senior Management Program of the Lagos Business School (Pan African University).
Mr. Abe presently on the board of Kingspride Group, Insight Microfinance Bank Limited, Magnartis Finance & Investments Ltd (Member of the Nigerian Stock Exchange), D2RS Group, Pure Imagination Limited (South Africa) and Astrocraft Consulting (UK).
Mr. Abe is widely travelled and has an uncanny networking capability.
Mrs Chinelo Anohu is an Independent Non-Executive Director in CSCS Plc. She graduated with an LL.M in Computer and Communications Law Studies from the London School of Economics, England after obtaining and an LL.B from the University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus, Nigeria. She was called to the Nigeria Bar in 1997.
Prior to her current position, Mrs Anohu was the Director General National Pension Commission Abuja, Nigeria from October 2014 to April 2017 after Acting as the Director General from December 2012 to October 2014 and Secretary/Legal Adviser from December 2004 to December 2012, National Pension Commission Abuja. She was also the Legal Advisor, Telecommunications Sector Reform, BPE and Legal Adviser/Marketing Executive, AS Financial Services Wembley, UK from March 2001 to June 2002.
She is a member of the Chartered Institute of Arbitrators, London; London Stock Exchange Africa Advisory Group (LAAG), London, United Kingdom; and the International Advisory (IAB) University of Edinburgh Business School Edinburgh, Scotland December 2018 – Date
Her interests include active participation in charitable programmes and she enjoys reading novels and travelling.
Mr. Ibrahim Dikko is an Independent Non-Executive Director in CSCS Plc. He graduated with an LL.M [Corporate & Commercial Law] degree from Queen Mary & Westfield College, University of London, England after obtaining his LL.B from the University of Buckingham, England. He was called to the Nigeria Bar in 1990.
Mr. Dikko has worked in a variety of roles in banking, information technology and telecommunications. He worked on the team responsible for setting up the first Discount House in Nigeria and later rose to become Chairman of the Discount House from 2002 to 2012. He was a partner and director at Resourcery Plc where he led business develop- ment.
Mr. Dikko was also a pioneer member of the team that set up EMTS Ltd (trading as Etisalat Nigeria) in 2007 and was Vice President for Regulatory and Corporate Affairs until he left in 2017. He has a keen interest in competition regulation as well as the interplay between technology and regulation in the fast-changing Fintech/Regtech space. His interests also cover Corporate Governance and he is an independent director on the boards of Custodian Investments Plc, Baker Hughes Company Limited and The Society for Corporate Governance Nigeria.
Mr. Oluseyi Owoturo is a Non-Executive Director at CSCS Plc. He is also the Managing Director of United Securities Limited (USL), a foremost registrar firm in Nigeria and the current President and Chairman of the Council of the Institute of Capital Market Registrars.
He was the Group Chief Financial Officer of Hamilton Hammer & Co. (“HH”, now ARM Securities Limited). Prior to joining HH, he was the Head of Management Information Systems at F&C Securities Limited (now FCSL Asset Manage- ment Company Limited) which he joined from Venture Capital Partners Limited where he was the Head of Financial Control & Risk Assets. Mr Owoturo had a four-year stint at Access Bank as part of the agreement reached between Access Bank and HH for continuity in the management of USL when Access Bank acquired USL from HH in December 2007.
A former member of the Capital Market Committee (Sub Committee) on Market Infrastructure and Technology, Mr Owoturo is a technology enthusiast and possesses significant experience working with IT professionals in developing bespoke solutions. He has over 20 years’ experience in the financial services industry which spans Venture Capital, Financial Advisory, Stockbroking, Banking and Registrar Services.
Mr. Owoturo is a graduate of Accounting from the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife and a Chartered Accountant. He is also an alumnus of the Lagos Business School and has attended several management trainings including at IMD, Lausanne and Cambridge Judge Business School.
Mrs. Tijani graduated from the Lancaster University with Honours in Accounting, Finance & Economics. She also graduated with a Distinction in MBA, International Business from the University of Birmingham. She is a member of the Association of Chartered Certified Accountants (ACCA) and the Institute of Chartered Secretaries & Administrators of Nigeria.Mrs. Tijani has garnered significant experience as an operator in the Capital Market, participating in several landmark transactions which have contributed immensely towards the development of the Nigerian Capital Market. She was formerly the Head, Capital Markets Division of FBN Capital (a subsidiary of FBN Holdings Plc- formerly First Bank of Nigeria Plc) where she had oversight responsibility for deal origination and transaction execution. Mrs. Tijani is a Non- Executive Director of Sterling Bank Plc as well sits on the Boards of other Public and Private Companies.
Adeyinka is an accomplished Administrator and Financial Services professional with experience in General Management, Relationship Management, Investment and Portfolio Management, Credit Appraisal, Loan Management, Risk Assessment, Treasury Management, Performance Management, Business Development and Project Management. As an Influential Interpersonal Communicator and Negotiator, he is skilled at developing personal and strategic relationships with Key Stakeholders across broad levels and dimensions. He has a track record of building and leading effective cross functional teams, driving change initiatives and implementing strategy.
Prior to joining CSCS, Adeyinka was an Executive Director at Volker Securities and Investments Company Limited; the Chief Operating Officer at Unic Insurance Plc; Group Head, Corporate Banking, Telecoms and Special Projects at Bond Bank Limited and a member of the Corporate Banking team at Guaranty Trust Bank respectively.
Adeyinka is a Senior Member of the Chartered Insurance Institute of Nigeria. He has a B.A Economics from the University of Leicester, an MBA International Management from the University of Exeter and a Diploma in Marketing form the Chartered Institute of Marketing, England.
Onome Komolafe is the Divisional Head of Shared Services and holds a B.Sc. and an MBA from the Obafemi Awolowo University. She has worked in different capacities of the Payments and Settlement system in the Nigerian Financial Eco-system.
She brings to bear over 20 years of quality, professional experience garnered from her exceptional leadership and service delivery in organizations such as; Guaranty Trust Bank, Access Bank and Coronation Merchant Bank.
Prior to joining CSCS, she held the position of Chief Operating Officer at Coronation Merchant Bank, in which capacity she led the Operations and Technology transformation strategies across the entire organisation.
She was Head of Branch Operations, Treasury Operations and Domestic Operations at GT Bank where she started her banking career in 1997.
Onome joined Access bank in 2007, where she fulfilled the role of Head of Treasury Operations and subsequently oversaw the Banks’ Centralized Operations Group where she created The Standardized Procedures for Domestic Funds Transfer, Credit and Corporate Operations Teams as well as leading several key projects including the Treasury Software Implementation project for the bank.
She is a thoroughbred professional with memberships in reputable committees such as the Central Bank of Nigeria’s Financial Services Industry Infrastructure Transformation Program, the RTGS (Real Time Gross Settlement) Implementation team, and the Payment Systems and Infrastructure Sub- Committee of the Bankers Committee.
Tobe is a Business Manager focused on delivery of highly innovative platform. He has been instrumental to the setting and management of the digital platforms of three leading banks in Nigeria. In addition, Tobe was involved in the design and implementation of various firsts like the first inter-bank digital payment platform, first cash deposit machine in Nigeria, first Nigerian Insurance Database and many others. He has led teams in Digital Business, Technology, Public Sector Collections, Project Management, Retail Business amongst others.
Prior to joining CSCS, Tobe was most recently the Group Chief Information Officer of the Wapic Insurance Group comprising of three companies in Nigeria and Ghana. While in Wapic, Tobe also had oversight of the Digital and Data Science/Architecture Teams. Tobe has worked in various banks like Guaranty Trust Bank, Standard Bank (Stanbic in Nigeria), FCMB and Heritage Bank where he was a Deputy General Manager in charge of Innovation and Products Division.
Tobe is a Fellow of the British Computer Society, Associate of the Chartered Institute of Bankers (Scotland and Wales), Associate of the Chartered Institute of Bankers Nigeria, Fellow of the Institute of Information Management of Nigeria and also a Prince 2 Certified Practitioner. He has a B.Sc in Applied Physics (Electronics), Masters in Information Technology (from the University of Lagos) and an MBA from Bangor University, Scotland, UK. Tobe is also an alumnus of the Lagos Business School Advanced Management Program (AMP 26).
Femi is a versatile business solution and financial market expert, with two decades hands-on experience in pioneering new business lines, products and functional groups for various organizations. He has developed and led Africa expansion drive for diverse businesses in Consultancy, Commercial Banking and a Securities Exchange; covering 14 African countries across various industries. His career experience covers Capital Markets and Financial Services, spanning Business Start-up and Transformation, Corporate Strategy, Corporate Finance, Deal Origination and Structuring, Product Development, Business Development, Securities Market Structure Design and Implementation, Treasury, Risk Management, Structured Products, Investment Management and Fund Advisory, Securities Trading, Process re-engineering. and Project/Programme Management.
Prior to joining the CSCS, he was the Ag. Divisional Head – Trading Business and Head, Secondary Markets at the Nigerian Stock Exchange, with responsibility for overseeing the Exchange’s Trading Business Division which covers product development, market structure design and enhancement, product management, order flow generation, buy-side relationship management, specialized products deal origination and advisory services, monetization of market data and technology services, as well as market operations. Prior to the NSE, as a practitioner, he has held lead roles in pioneering and developing business, treasury, risk management and transformation capabilities for organizations such as United Bank for Africa Plc, United Capital Plc, and IBFCAgusto. In addition, he has led and participated in consulting engagements across his skill competency areas for various institutions operating in diverse industries and geographies in Africa.
In his current role as the Chief Strategy Officer of Central Securities Clearing System Plc, he is responsible for strategy development, resource allocation and strategy execution with the overall goal of ensuring organizational effectiveness, as well as business model innovation & sustainability.
Femi is a Global Association of Risk Professionals (GARP) certified Financial Risk Manager, a Microsoft Certified Professional and a graduate of the University of Lagos in the field of Pure and Applied Mathematics.
Peter Medunoye is vastly experienced and renowned for financial planning, corporate finance, asset and liability management, banking operations, business strategy, taxation, business performance, control and compliance across different industries such as banking, insurance, pension, capital markets, and trustee business. He is versatile in both private and public sector businesses.
As an accomplished and result oriented finance professional, Peter holds enviable records in financial accounting, innovative management, business re-engineering, leadership, people management and bankruptcy prediction research over a period of two decades.
Mr Medunoye is currently the Chief Financial Officer of Central Securities Clearing System Plc. Prior to his appointment, he was the Group Financial Controller of Custodian Investment Plc. He worked as Financial Controller at the Nigerian Stock Exchange after his previous experiences at Access Bank Plc and Diamond Bank Plc (now Access Bank Plc). Beyond his private sector experience, Peter has complimentary public sector exposure at director level. He served as the Assistant Director of Finance and Investment at Lagos State Pension Commission where he was instrumental to the establishment of sound and sustainable finance and investment policies along with operating procedures for the efficient management of the State’s Pension Fund.
Peter holds a Master’s degree in Finance and Management from Cranfield University, United Kingdom and a B.Sc degree in Accounting from University of Ilorin, Nigeria. He is a Fellow of the Institute of Chartered Accountants of Nigeria; a Fellow of the Chartered Management Institute, United Kingdom; and an Associate Member of Nigeria Institute of Management.
He has attended several management programs both locally and internationally on Leadership, Financial Strategy, Competitive Strategy, Mergers & Acquisition, Anti-money Laundering and the Oxford Private Equity Course of the Oxford University, United Kingdom.
Peter is a scholar practitioner with a rich mix of experiences and exposures finely split between professional practice and theory. As part of his voluntary contribution to professional development and the body of knowledge, he teaches for some respected business schools and Universities as adjunct faculty.